Rokunga leh Mizo Nationalism

25/11/2010 20:21
- Rev. Dr.K.Thanzauva, Serkawn

1.Thuhma: Seminar on “Upa Rokunga Contribution ” hi ka lo rawt thin a. Mahse ka beisei lo leh Rokunga Memorial Society a ding a ni tih pawh ka hriat lovin seminar-a paper buatsaih tura min sawm avangin he programme buatsaihtute chungah ka lawm hle a ni. Ka topic ziak tur hian ka competent ber lo tih ka hria, mahse hnial thei rual niin ka inhriat loh avangin lawm takin he paper hi ka buatsaih ve a ni.

2.Nationalism Hrilhfiahna: Nationalism hi kawng hrang hrangin hrilhfiah theih a ni a, amaherawhchu mithiam ten an chhui dan chai vak lem lovin, “mahni ram leh hnam hmngaihna ” a ni tiin sawi fiah mai ila. Nationalism zirtute chuan nationalism hi kawng hrang hrangin an thlir a- Ethnic nationalism (chibik/ hnam bik hmangaihna leh veina ); Romantic nationalism (hnam pumpui ngaihsanna le chawimawina); Cultural nationalism (hnam nunphung inang tlang-mahni tawng leh nunphung ngaihsanna ); Liberal nationalism (mihring dikna leh zalenna humhalh duhna ); State nationalism (mahni state ngaihpawimawhna leh ngaihsanna ); Religious nationalism (mahni sakhaw bik ngaihsanna leh induhsakna ); Pannatioanlism (ram khata mite, ram pawn lama chengte pawh nise inhmangaihna leh induhsakna ); Diaspora nationalism (khawi hmunah pawh awm ila mahni ram leh hnam hmangaihna leh veina ).

Nationalism hi ngaihtuahna fim tak atanga lo piang a ni thei a, amaherawhchu, rilru lam (feeling ) nasa taka chawkthotu a ni fo mai. Chuvangin khawvel history kan thlir letin nationalism dik lo leh hlauhawm (facism, extremism ) a awm thei a, hnam dang hmusitna, inthlirhranna (racism ) a hring thei a, induhna leh mi dang hmusitna (inperrialism ) a hring thei bawk a ni. Chuvangin nationalism dik khawvela hnam tin leh chitin te hian ka mamawh a ni.

Nationalism-in a hrinchhuah thenkhate

·        Hnam inpumkhatna humhalh leh tichak, hnam harsatna sukiang tura campaign leh theihtawp chhuah;

·        Hnam pianzia leh nihna (identity ) vawn him, hnam dang tihdan duh lohna leh ngaihtheih lohna;

·        Hnam dang ngaihtheihlohna leh hnawhchhuah hial duhna, a chang chuan hnam dang rawt chimih duhna hial te;

·        Mahni chenna ram zauh duhna leh mahni ram lo ni tawh leh u-leh-unaute chenna ram mahni ramri chhunga rinluh duhna leh tumna;

·        Ram leh hnam a lo hausak theihna tur theihtawp chhuah(economic nationalism )-ram dang siam hman khap leh economy policy tha zawk rel chhuah tumna.

Nationalism history zirtute chuan hnam hmangaihna leh ngaihsanna a lo pian dan ngun takin an chhui a. Hun danglam zelah hnam rilru (national consciousness ) lungawi lohna avangin emaw hlawtlinna avangin emaw a lo piang thin a ni. Chutah chuan hruaitu, mihring rilru chawktho thiam tak an awm chawk a ni an ti. Chutiangin Mizoram-ah pawh Mizo nationalism chawkchhuaktu pawimawh tak tak a awm thei ang. Upa Rokunga hi Mizo nationalism chawk thotu chauh ni lovin, nationalism belh chiang dawl tak Mizote thinlunga tuhtu a ni.

3.Mizo Nationalism: Mizo chu kan hriat theuh angin nation kan ni lova, India ram chhunga hnam pakhat kan ni ve chauh a, chuvangin Mizo nationalism chu ethnic/ state nationalism a ni. Paul R.Brass chuan Ethnicity and Nationalism hi anmahnia lo piang ngawt a ni lova, khawtlang nun leh politic in her danglam zelin a hrin chhuah a ni, a ti a. Chutiang deuh chuan Mizo nationalism hi zawi zawia lo piang chhuak a, khawvel hun inher ang zelin a danglam mek zel a ni.

3.1 Historical accident: Asian Baptist Congress inkhawmpui lian 3-6 May 2007 hmangin zaipawlte nen Chiangmai, Thailand-ah kan kal a, Asia hmun hrang hrang atangin 1700 zet kan kalkhawm a. International Cultural Programme kan hmang thin a, chutah chuan kan unau tam tak ka hmu chhuak thar a ni. Kum 1901 Census record hi ngun takin en ila, Kuki-Mizo-Chin group hi kum 100 kal taah khan 600,000 chuang zet kan ni tawh a ni.

Names of Tribes

Estimated Number

The Census of 1901

Tibetan

45,024

235,229

Himalayan

194,234

190,585

North Assam

36,910

41,731

Bod

617,989

596,411

Naga

292,799

247,780

Kachin

1,920

125,775

Kuki-Mizo-Chin

564,091

624,149

 

Inpumkhat lam pan lovin then darhin kan awm zel a ni. Lt. Colnel Thomas Lewin chuan Dzo (Mizo or Zomi ) tam tak an awm a, ngun taka han zir chian chuan tawng pawh inhnaih tak, a hranna chu tlema danglamna deuh chauh (dialectical difference ) a ni, a ti. Kum 1890 Chin-Lushai Conference chuan Chin-Lushai-Kuki ho zawng zawng hi British Administration pakhatna dah an lo rawt tawh a, chu rawtna chu Governor General Council-ah sawiho a ni a, chutah chuan Alexander Mackenzie, Chief Commissioner of Burma chuan a remti lova, kan unau Chin ho chu Burma lamah an bet ta zel a, Mizoram Chhim leh Hmar erawh chu administration pakhatah dah a ni.

·        British Administrator khan Mizo lalte tudaiin administration pakhat hnuaiah min awp a, chu chuan inpumkhatna lamah nasa takin hma min sawntir a, mahse beisei ram erawh kan thleng pha lova, Zofate hi Myanmar, India leh Bangaladesh-ah then darhin kan awm.

·        Kan ramah Missionary-te an lo lut a, Kristian-ah min siam a, tawng pakhat min develop sak a, sakhaw pakhat min biaktir a, Kohhran inkhawmpui leh inawpna chuan inpumkhatna tha leh nghet lehzual a siam a ni.

·        Mizo nationalism hi Mizote rilruah a piang tlai hle a, vanduai thlak takin lal ropui min awpkhawmtu emaw, hruaitu ropui tak emaw kan nei lo.

3.2 Historical incident: Mizo nationalism hi India nationalism-in a hrinchhuah mai a ni. Second World War a lo tawp a, British colony ram tam tak chuan independent an duh a, chung zingah chuan India pawhin independent a sual a. Hetih hun laia Mizo lehkha thiam hmasate chuan Mizoram veina leh Mizo hnam humhalh duhna an rawn nei ve ta a ni.

·        Kum 1926 khan Aizawla hruaitu thenkhat chuan Assam ram atang inlakhran duhna Superintendent hnenah an lo thlen tawh a ni.

·        India independent dawn khan political party Mizo Common People’s Union (a hnu lawka “Mizo Union ” kan tih tak ) chu 9 April 1946-ah din a ni.

·        Mizo hnam kal zel dan tur sawiho a ni a, duh dan hrang hrang sawiho a ni:

(a) British Crown Colony hnuaia awm duh (lal thenkhat leh a kaihhruaite ).

(b) Independent nation-a awm duh pawl (Right Wing of Mizo Union ).

(c)  India Union zawma, mipui rorelna (democratic system ) zawm a, Mizo lal ban (Mizo Union).

(d) Burma Union zawm duh pawl (UMFO ).

Mizo Union duh dan zuiin India Union kan zawm ta a, Mizoram chu Assam ram hnuaia District pakhat hnuaia dah a ni, ni 25 April 1952 khan Mizo District Council chu lawm a ni. Hun kal zelah Assam District pakhat nih chu duh khawp lohna a lian hle a, “Mizoram State “ leh “Independent Sorkar ” a awm duhna a lo irh chhuak leh ta a ni. Mautam leh hnathawh tur nei lo (unemployment problem ) avangte, Nagaland Independent Struggle entawn avangte-in Independent policy chak taka tihnun thar a ni a. Tichuan “Mizoram Famine Front ” chu 28 October 1961 khan “Mizo National Front ” tiin Political Party a lo ni ta a, hei hian Independence Policy chu chak takin a kalpui a, kum 1966 chuan ralthuam te nena rammut (armed struggle ) an tan ta a ni. Kum 7 lai ram buai chhung khan MNF chuan mipui duhsakna a hlawh sawt hle a, tichuan India Sorkar  North East India dinhmun a thlir a, North Eastern Reoganisation Act 1971 chu a passed a, Mizoram pawh chu kum 1972 khan Union Territory dinhmunah hlankai a ni a. Kum 20 lai rammu a, an thangbo hnuah 30 June 1986 khan Accord sign-in Armed Struggle titawpin “Mizoram State ” pek kan ni ta a ni. State te tak te, naupang leh resource nei tlem tak kan nih avangin vawiin thlenga kan buaipui ber chu economic development a ni.

4.Upa Rokunga Nationalism: Hetianga kan ram a inlumlet chhung zawng zawng hian Upa Rokunga chuan Mizoram hi a thlir a, Mizoram hi a hmangaihin a vei em em a ni tih hi a hla atangin kan hmu thei a ni.

Upa Rokunga hi 20 February, 1914 khan a lo piang a. A pa chu Thangluta a ni a, a nu chu Zaliani a ni. Kum 1931 Middle School a zo va, tichuan Loch Printing Press-ah a thawk zui nghal a. Kum 1945 khan Mission Veng Kohhran Upa-ah thlan a ni a, October 1951 khan a Upa nihna chu nemngheh a ni. Mizo hla 128 zet a phuah a ni. A hlate hi Nationalism kan zirna tura kan hman (source ) a ni ber a. “Upa Rokunga Mizo Kristian Patriotic ” tiin article ka lo ziak tawh a, chumi hnuah Mizo Nationalism chungchang ka chhuinaah a hla hi nasa takin ka hmang bawk a ni. Chu chu sub-headquarter YMA Conference Tlabungah ka present nghe nghe a ni.

4.1 Pu Rokunga Vision of Mizoram: Junior Martin Luther King-a chuan, “ Ka dawn thin, beiseina chuai ngai lovin ka thlir reng mai, chu chu American mipuite beiseina pawh a ni. Mingo leh Mihangte, inhmangaihtawn leh inrem tlang taka an lenna ram ka thlir thin,” a tih ang deuhvin, Pu Rokunga hian Mizoram beiseinain a thlir a ni.

Kan Zotlang ram nuam hi chhawrpial run i iang e,

Hal lo te’n lungruala dar ang kan lenna...

I mawi em e, kan Zoram hmun sang

Fiara tui thiang kan dawnna...

Kan ram mawi chul lo la, parin vul lehzual la,

Thangthar hmatiang sawnna tur khua sei leh se.

Pu Rokunga chuan Zoram hi mawi a ti. Mahse a ram leilung chhiatziate a pha lova, “Kan ram riangte hi zawl zau a vang e, tlangsang leh kham rang, lengkir hmuh hi,” a ti a, mahse hmangaihna mita a en avangin a mawi a ti a ni.

Hal lo te’n lungruala dang ang kan lenna ” a tih hian khawtlang inrem, tangrual leh lungrual taka hmasawnna ram a thlir a ni.

Kan ram mawi! chul lo la, parin vul lehzual la, thangthar hmatiang sawnna tur khua sei leh se,” a tih hian hmasawn zel turin Mizoram a duhzia a tilang chiang hle. He rilru bawk hi chiang lehzualin a sawi chhuak a ni.

Raltiang ram saw thlir teh u,

Hriatna, thiamna finna ram saw;

Leng dang mi chu lal lai par tlanin,

Min ngai lo te’n an leng e;

Lenrual duhte u tho r’u, Raltiang i kai ve ang.

Min dotu apiang hnehin, Raltiang i kai ve ang.

Tunlai huna kan ram thing leh mau chereu sawtzia te hi hmu sela, a hla phuah tur a hriat theih a ni. Zoram pangpar, thing leh mau, lui leh tlang, sik leh sa ngaisang leh fak em emtu hian kan ram humhalhna hla pawh tam tak a phuah ngei ang. Pu Rokunga’n Mizo khawtlang a beisei (vision of society ) chu, dik tak, inremtlang, hmasawn, nuam leh kumhlun (DIHNK ) society a ni.

4.2 Mahni hnam ngaihsan leh chawimawina (self-esteem ): Zalenna leh hmasawnna kawngah hian mahni inrinngamna, inngaihsanna leh inchawimawina kan neih hi thil pawimawh tak a ni. Khawvel history kan chhuiin, midumho chuan hmelchhia leh laktlak  lovah an inngai tlat a, chu chu an hnam hmasawnna kawngah daltu lian tak a ni tih an hria a, chuvangin midum nihna inhriatchianna beihpui (black consciousness movement )-ah chuan, “Dum hi a mawi a ni ”(black is beautiful ) an ti tlat a ni.

Hetianga mahni insit lohna leh inpawmna hian nasa takin hmasawnna a rawn thlen ta a ni. Hetiang deuh bawk hian Pu Rokunga pawh hian kan hnar bek deuh leh kan chawn ping telh tawlh pawh a hria, mahse:

Mizo kan ni kan hmel a tha,

Kan tum a sang bawk si;

a ti a.

Kan rilru pawh a sang e,

Kan hming a thang bawk si;

a ti zui zel a,

Chutin kan hmingthan mawina chuan,

Khuavel a dang chhuak ang;

a ti a ni.

Hmeltha kan tih hi ngo, hmai sawl deuh ria fan zeih zawih a ni thin. Mahse a mawina tak tak chu rilru putdan (attitude ), thiamna (efficiency ), finna (wisdom ), felna (smartness-ah) thui tak a innghat a ni. Heng bakah hian hmeltha tur hian zuk leh hmuama insum, taksa enkawl uluk pawh a tul ve hrim hrim a ni.

4.3 Mizo culture ngaihsanna: Nationalism-in a ken tel tlat chu mahni culture ngaihsanna a ni. Pu Rokunga pawh hian Mizo culture hi a ngaisang hle a, hetiang hian a sawi chhuak a ni:

Aw tlawmngaihna hlu, aw, nunna par,

Kan tlang ram nuam hmun sangah hian;

Kum sang tam tak pawh ral mah se,

Zamual liam lovin ding reng rawh.

Ka chawi ang che sakhming hluanin,

“Zo nun par mawi ” ka ti ang che;

I mawina rimrui leng velin,

Ramtin, kiltin a fang del del.

Mizo tlawmngaihna hi Mizo nun kaihruaitu, kan ram chhengchhe tak leh hreawm tak pawh ram nuam taka chantirtu a ni. Hei hi Pu Rokunga chuan Zonun Parmawi ka ti ang che a ti hial a. Tlawmngaihna theology ka ziah lai tak a ni a. Fanu ka nei hlauh mai a, a hming atan “Zonunpari ” ka tih phah ta hial a ni. Mizo tlawmngaihna nun hi mi thenkhat chuan hnam dang zingah chuan a hman theih loh an ti thin a, mahse ka experience atang chuan Mizo tlawmngaihna dik tak hi nunpui ila, khawvela hnam zawng zawng hian an ngaisang vek ang. Hetiang deuh hle hi Hindu ho pawhin an nei thova, anni chuan Niskama Karma an ti a, hlawh beisei lova thil tha tih tihna a ni. Mizo tlawmngaihna hi Kristian zirtirna “Hmangaihna ”(Agape ) nen pawh a inmil chiah a ni.

4.4 Christian nationalism: Pu Rokunga nationalism chu Christian nationalism a nih avangin kei chuan  Pu Rokung hi “Mizo Christian patriot ” ka lo ti thin a ni. Kristian ka tihna chhan chu a hla thenkhat:

Aw nang kan lal kan Pathian,

I hming ropui ber se,

I finna leh theihna leh,

I hruaina lo rengin;

Ropuina leh lalthutthleng,

An ral leh thuai si thin;

Kan ram kan hnam min hruaia’n,

Nang chauh kan thlang a che,

Kan ram Rorelna pawh hi,

Aw Pathian, malsawm la,

Kan ram Rorelna pawl hi,

I kutah kan hlan e;

Kan ram ropuina zawng zawng

Kan thiam kan finna zawng zawng,

I thu angin luantir la,

Malsawmin vur ang che.

Heng hla baka, “Hnamdang hmusit mai lovin, thianah i siam ang u ” a han tih te hian, Pu Rokunga nationalism hi a Kristian zia a tilang chiang em em a ni.

Hetiang mi ropui Mizovin kan nei hi Pathian hnenah lawmthu ka sawi a, ka chhuang em em a ni. Pu Rokunga hian thinlungah kan ram hi a tinuamin, min tihlim a, Mizo nih hlutna pawh min hriattir a ni.

5.Chalenges and Application: Pu Rokunga nationalism hi zir leh sawi duah hlauh mai tur a nil ova, a nuna nunpui chi a ni. Mahse vanduai thlak takin thangthar zingah hian hnam rilru fim fai leh fel tak (Christian nationalism ) hi a dai sawt hle a ni.

Mizo tlangval ” tia kan han au chhuah that hian kan rilrua a thawh dan a danglam hle tawh a ni. tun hma chuan, “Mizo tlangval ” tih hian hungtawlh lo, thiante tana nun hlan ngam, mi huaisen tih a kawk a ni. Nasa takin self-esteem kan hloh ta em ni?

Kristian pratriotism/ nationalism chuan tlawmngaihna, corruption tel lo, rinawm leh dik a kawk a ni. Vawiin hian corruption hi conventional practice-ah kan hmang mai dawn em ni?

Tuna kan hmabak chu, “Economic nationalism ” a ni. Kan ram ti mai a, siam nuam tur leh lungrual tak leh hlim tlang taka hma kan sawn theihna tur chuan “economic nationalism ” dik tak kan mamawh a ni. Tribal subsistent economy hi ka bansan a Market economy-a kan luh chiah hian khawvelah rual pawlin kan awm ve thei dawn a ni. Kawng dang a awm lo. Mahse market economy kan panna kawngah hian Pu Rokunga nationalism hi kan hman a ngai a ni.

5.1 Damtlanna, thantlanna leh intluktlanna society (harmonious society ) kan din tur a ni.

5.2 Duai hauh lova, ram leh hnam hmangaihna tak taka kan thawhho a tul a ni. Japanese, Korean leh Singapore ho hian entawn tur kawng tha tam min kawhhmuh tawh a ni. Nation building hi thil awl ai a ni lo.

5.3 Pu Rokunga nationalism-ah chuan Mizo nih leh corruption a kal dun thei lo (in-complete ) a ni.

Kum 20 rammu in ralthuam nen Political Identity sualin kan bei tawh a, tunah hian duhthusam thleng lo mah ila Political status sang tak Statehood hial kan lo chang ve ta. Tunah chuan, “Armed struggle ” atangin “Transformational struggle ” kan bei ve ta a nih hi. Armed struggle aiin transformational struggle hi a awl chuang miah lo. Tribal community tam tak an fail-na a ni a, mahse Lalpa chakna rin chhanin kan bei ang a, Mizoram hi Chhawrpial Run iangin kan siam dawn a ni.

·        Footnote kan rawn tarlang thei ta lo – Ed. of Zotui Thiang

·        Thulakna: Mizo Nih Tinuamtu Rokunga by Rokunga Memorial Society & Aizawl Development Authority

Comments

Date 26/11/2010
By dolerich
Subject Rokunga and Nationalism

A tha hle mai. Zirlai tan hetiang hi a tangkai thin viau ania. Lehkhabu zawng zawng neih kim vek a har si a, a footnote awm lo erawh hi chu a pawi a, mahse a hlutna erawh a bo lo ve.

 

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