Mizo Culture Tobul leh Hmasawn Zel Dan (Origin & Development of Mizo Culture)

30/08/2010 22:41

Kan thupui a lian hle mai a, a intan dan zir chian kan tum deuh ang a.A bik takin a hun leh hmun te hriat theih tumin kan thlur bik dawn a ni. Ziaktu hmasate sawi dan thlir phawt ila a tha awm e. Mi mal mal ziak dan tarlang loin, a tlangpui hlawm chhuak ila, hmun a heh lo deuh ang.

Rev. Liangkhaia te, Pu V.L. Siama te, Pu Lalmama te, Pu Lalsuaka te leh Pu Remkunga teho ziak dan hi a inang tlangpui a, " Mizo chanchin kan hriat phak hla ber chu Run kam thlang lamah Lal chi bik nei loin, mahni chi chi  in an awm tih chauh hi a ni a ... chunglai chuan kan thlahtute chuan, la chin dan leh puan siam dan hi an la thiamloh avangin an saruak hle ani an ti. Mipaho chuan,  ‘Hnawkhal’ an ti a, hruikhau  phiar hi kawr ang reng hian an siam a, an ha thin a.....hmeichhiate lah chuan chutiang hruikhau hrual thilkhawm bawk chu an feng mai a, chu chu ‘Siapsuap’  an ti a ni. Chu lo chu  hmeichhiate pawhin silhfen dang an nei mang lo awm e......... chunglai chuan thlawhhma lak dan hi an thiamlo em em a ni. An chenna ram a chhe bawk a, vaimim te, buhtun te, bal te hi an ching hmasa a ....... sazuk ki tein hlo an thlo a, mi tlemte chauhin thir hriamhrei an nei...... Run kama an awmlai chu a rei lam pawhin kum AD 1500 vel lai emaw ani ang......."

" Nakinah nikhua alo rei hnuah, Len tlang an lo chuan chhuaha, a pang thlang lam te an lo thlen chin ah erawh chuan mi ang deuhin an khawsa awm e.  ‘Dawlrem kawr’ an ti a, kawr dum,  a lai rang rek ruk hi an siam thiam ta a, chu chu rei tak an ching. Chunglai chuan mipa-in Saiha bengbeh an beh a, an saiha kua ah chuan thifen hrui an khai a, an koki hi a vaw hnawp hnawp mai ani an ti...... ’Tawlhloh puan’ an  kawrtawng hak a, tlan lo tur entirna a ni. Lentlang an lo chuan chhuah hnu ah chauh buhchang an ching ni awmin kan hria..... thal kibar te, fei te pawh an nei tawh awm e...... sakhaw biak tur leh inthawina pawh engmah an hre lo; mahse an damlohin a tinatu lak ata chhantu tur leh tidamtu an ngai si.... inthawi dan an ngaihtuah chhuah hmasa ber chu  ‘Arte thlah’ leh ‘Bulthluk’ hi  ani an ti..... biak tur an zawng chawp zela, " Pi biakin lo chhang ang che, Pu biakin lo chhang ang che," tih hi an thiam hla hriat chhuah hmasa ber ani awm e....."

 Hengte hi tun hmaa kum upate kawm phain an ti ti dawn te an ziak ani a, an ziakna pawh kum 80 te, kum 50 liam tawhah te a ni hlawm. Tun hnua uluk leh ngun leh zuala Mizo history leh Culture kan zir a, zau zawk leh chik leh zuala kan chhui a, kan hmuh dan te nen i lo zir chiang teh ang u.

Pakhatnaah chuan, lo neihna hmanrua hi a ni, sazuk ki bakah sakhi ki leh hmawlh zumte pawh an hmang niin a lang, an hla hlui pakhat pawh hetiangin kan hmu -

Khisa chhukchho chhumpui zing hnuaiah,

A ki riau riau riang hlo thlawh nan a tha e,

tih hian a  hril chiang viau awm e.

Pahnihnaah chuan, ‘Siapsuap’  leh  ‘Hnawkhal’ chungchang hi  kimchang deuh hlekin chhui ila. Hruikhau an hik teuh a, chu chu inthuah tupin an ram a, an kawngah an feng mai a, an thut chuan an kapkar ah an dah khawm thin. Tlema an lo changkan deuh hnuin chutiang bawk chu an hnute hliah nan an awm chungah an vet veleh niin a lang. Tichuan hmeichhia ten hliahkhuh tur an neih pahnih chu an thup thei ve ta viau atih theih awm e.

‘Hnawkhal’  hi zir chian a ngai  zual a, Rev. Liangkhaia chuan, "Mipaho chuan hruikhau phiar hi kawr ang reng hian an siam a, an ha thin a," a ti a. Pu Lalmama pawhin, "Hruikhau hi an hik teuh a, chu chu inthuah tupin an ram khawm a, a hmawr lam erawh chu an ti uai mai a, chu chu an koki-a bat in hruihrualin an zak hnuaiah an kaihkhirh a, chutiang chuan kawr atan an hmang a...... a hming  ‘Hnawkhal an ti ani ,"a ti thung.

 Sawidan dang ngaihnawm tak pakhat chu, "Hruikhau hi hlai deuh hlek, kutphah tiat vela hih chu, an kawngah hruia hrengin an hmalamah an serh hliah turin an uai thlak tir thin a, a sir atanga en chuan an serh chu a lang thei thova, chu chu ‘Hnawkhal’ an ti," tiin ka thawhpui Pu R.L.Thianga’n kum 1958 ah Sialhawk Middle School a kal laia Pu V.L.Siama’n a sawi thu leh a pi Pi Darbuki, chutih laia kum 82(1877-a piang) pawhin a sawi thu min hrilh a ni.

 Rev. Liangkhaia leh Pu Lalmama sawi hi chu, a ziaktute lam zahawm hle mahse, zau zawka kan zirin, ‘Chin raincoat’ niin a lang a. Pu Buanga pawhin a Dictionary hmingthang takah ‘Chin raincoat’ tiin alo ziak ve bawk.

A thuhrimin, mihring kalphungah, mipa aiin hmeichhiain thup tur an ngah zawk a, an mamawh zawk bawk a. Hmeichhia-in an serh chauh hliahna ‘Siapsuap’ an hman laia mipa zawkin taksa pum khuh thei kawr ‘Hnawkhal’ an haa sawi hi chu rilru fim taka ngaihtuahin, a awm anglo deuhin a lang.

Tin, Chin tih hian min huam vek tho alawm a tih theih a, a dikna chin pawh a awm. Mahse, chik deuha kan zir chuan, hmanlaiin khawchhak lam atangin ‘Chin’ ti leh, khawthlang lam atangin ‘Kuki’ tiin Mizo hnahthlakte hi koh leh sawi vek a ni a. Mahse heng hunlai hian, ‘Chin’ tih chuan tuna Burma ram ‘Chin State’-a chengte chauh a kawk a ni.

Hetianga kan han chhuizau deuh hian, ‘Hnawkhal’ hi Hruikhau kutphah tiat vela hih, mipa -in an hmalam a an serh hliah tura an uaithlak tir, kawngah hruia a hrenah pawm ila, a dikin a him ber awm e.

 Ziaktu hmasate sawi ang hian, Mizo Culture hi Run kam leh Thantlang vela intana sawi hi pawm mai tur em ni ang ? A hnaivai lutukin hnam culture intanna bul a tawi tek tuk lu deuh lo maw ? Chhui dan thar leh zau zawka dap dan tur a awm ngang lo em ni ? Rilru leh ngaihtuahna tak tak sengin i han chhui teh ang aw .

Hmui  hi China rama tlangmi  hnam 55 zinga ‘Dai’ leh ‘Akha’ hnamte chuan an nei a. Thailand rama tlangmi hnam 12 zinga Karen hnamte pawhin an nei a. Tlangmi dangte pawhin an nei mai thei bawk. Mizo kutchhuak hmanraw zingah Hmui hi a mechanism emaw, a technology emaw hi a sang ber atih theih awm e. A pianhmang te, a inrel dan te, la kaih theih tura an duan dan te hi a sang ve hle. Thir ngil em em, ‘hmuithal’ a awm leh atul tlat te, fip lutuk lo, tluak lutuk bawk si lo ‘tluanghrui’ a ngaite hian a nihphung san ve zia ati lang chiang hle.

Her-awt  hi China rama  Tlangmite leh Thailand rama tlangmite pawhin an nei a, China rama tlangmite Herawt chuan ‘kelki’ a nei lo a. Thailand rama tlangmite ta erawh chuan holam deuh tak a hming chauhin ‘kelki’ a nei. Mizo Herawt hian kelki a nei tha ber tih kan hmu thei. Her-awta a kelki awm hian a tichak bik a, a thial dik bik bawk a, a ngai renga her thei tura vawngtu a ni. Hengte kan en chian hian, Her-awt machanism hi a hniamlo hle tih a lang a ni.

Thiamhnang  chi hrang hrang  China leh Thailand rama tlangmite kutchhuak te hi Mizo siamte nen a danglamna a tamlo hle. A pianhmang a dang hret hret naa, malkalh, bawhtah leh thumbawh anihna te, bawmrang tah dan hmangte chu a danglam lo.

Puantah  dan pawh China leh  Thailand rama tlangmite tah dan leh Mizote tihdan a danglam lutuk lo. China ram tlangmi ‘Du-long’ hnam nena kan puan tial dan kalhmang te hi na thuhmun hmel khawp mai.

Cheraw  hi Vietnam, Malaysia,  Phillipines leh China ram tlangmi ‘Li’ hnam chuan an kan thin tih kan hria a. China rama cheraw kan ve thin ‘Li’ hnamte hi Taiwan thliarkar aia te hret Hainan thliarkara cheng an ni a, kum 1982 khan, mihring 8,17,600 an awm a, lehkha an neilo a, Chinese-Tibetan tawng hlawm hmang an ni. An thlahtute chu Hainan thliarkar ah hian kum 1000 BC vel khan cheng tawha hriat an ni.

 Hetianga Mizo thilte nena inkungkaihna nei awma kan hmuhte hian eng angin nge inzawmna kan neih ang ? Kan ‘Missing Link’ ni thei awm ilo zawng dawn teh ang hmiang. Chuta tang chuan Mizo Culture tobul leh intanna dapchhuah kan tum dawn nia.

Thil chhui chian ngai tak chu, pi leh pute Run kam vela an khawsak laiin, saruak deuh thawin an awm a, hmeichhia-in ‘Siapsuap’ an feng a, mipa-in ‘Hnawkhal’ an inbel thung tih leh Len tlang an thleng a, silhfen an siam thiam a,hmui te, her-awt te neiin puan an tah thiam ta thut mai leh thiamhnang chi hrang hrang an tah thiam thut bawk tih hi a ni. Hetianga hma an sawn thuthi a chhan enge ni ang ? A hun vel ni awma ziaktu hmasate sawidan hi a pawmawm reng em ? Mizo chanchin khualzinna kawng thui tak hi zau zawk leh ngun takin, pawmawm zawkin zir chian ilo tum teh ang.

Mizo thlahtu bul kan chhui theih hla ber chu, Tibet chhim chhak, China ram hmar lam Kansu bialah 2000 BC vel khan Tibeto-Burman hlawm zingah telin an cheng vea rin ani a. A tawizawngin thlang tla zelin, Tibeto- Burman tawng hmang hlawmho atanga tawlh hrang hret hretin, kum zabi 4-na (AD) velah Burma ram hmarthlang an thleng a, Mizo ten ‘Kawl Phai’ tia kan sawi thin ‘Kabaw Valley’ ah kum 800 AD velah an thleng a, kum 400 lai (800- 1200) an chenga rin a ni. Kawl(Burmese) te hi Burma-ah kum 832 - 5 velah an lut a, kum 1044 - 1287 chhung khan ‘Pagan Dynasty’ an din a, an khawpui ‘Pagan’ ah chuan Pagoda 4,000 lai an din a, mel 8 bial velah a ding a, tunlai thleng hian Tourist ten an thlawh duh hle. An sulhnu leh an kutchhuak chi hrang hrang enin an changkang tawh hle tih a hmuh theih khawp mai.

Hmanlai atangin Kawl leh Mizo(or Chin) te hi an indo thu sawi leh ziak hmuh tur a awm lova, an inpawh tawnin an inhal lemlo hlea sawi a ni. Tunlaia Kawl rama Mizo khawpui ‘Tahan’ bul mel chanve leka hla, tunah phei chuan a inpawh vek tawh a, ‘Kalemyo’ khua hi kum 1370 daih tawh ah khan Kawlho chuan an lo sawi tawh thin a. Hetianga inhnaih leh inpawh tawn taka Mizo pipute leh Kawlho hi anlo khawsakho vang ani mai thei, tawngthahnem tak a inang a, naupang infiamna a inang nual bawk a, vawiin thlenga Mizo ten hnam roa kan neih darkhuang, darbu leh darmang te hi an lo hmang ho thin ani ngei ang. Tin, he Kawl phai hi buh leh bal a tha duh a, Chindwin luipui pawh a hla vaklo bawk.

Hetianga zau deuh hleka kan thlir hian, an bula cheng inpawhtawn taka khawsaho Kawlte hi an In leh lo silh leh fenah te leh thil dang dangah an changkan viau tawh lai hian inpawhtawn leh inngeih taka khawsa, Kawl phai-a Mizote pawh hi In leh lo, silh leh fen leh kawng dang dangah an hniam lutuk biklo in a rinawm.

China ram chhim lam Yunnan chhak lama cheng Shan ho chu, Mongol ho nawr avangin Burma ram hmar lamah an lut hum hum a, kum 1215 AD te khan khua an din tawh a,khawthlang lamah tawlh thla zelin tuna Assam tia koh tun hmaa ‘Ahom’tih thin pawh hi kum 1229 khan an la nghe nghe. Pipute khan thawnthu ah emaw, titi khawchang ah emaw Kawl phai atanga an chhuah chhan hi an sawi kan hre ngailo a. Mahse hnamdang lehkhabu atanga zirin hetiang hian sawi ila, ‘Kawl phai-a kum tam deuh khawsa pipute chu, an aia tam leh chak zawk Shan ho nawr chhuah avangin khawvela hnam hrang hrangte insuan kawi dan, hnim hring thatna leh hmun nuam, ei leh bar harsatna atangin a awlsamna ah insawn loin, hmun hrehawm, ei leh bar harsat zawkna, tuna Chin State tia koh takah hian an kal chhuak ta a. Hmun hrang hrangah Mizo hnahthlakte chu an taidarh hlawm a, a hlawm lian berte chuan Chin State panin Than tlangah an lawn a, Run kam velah an khawsa ta naw naw a ni, ti ila pawm a nuamin a reasonable hlein a lang.Kum 1200 AD hi chuan Kawl phai hi an chhuahsan fel tawh mai thei a ni.

Than tlang hi a sang hle a, a sang lai ber Kannedy Peak chu 8,871 ft. Lai a tling a, a vawt em em a, thingkung tha leh lian pawh a awm thei meuh lo. A thlang lam a luang Run lui chu a kuam a thuk hle lawi a, a chhengchhe nasa bawk. A ram leilung a thalo hle bawk. Hengte avang hianbuh a chin theihloh a, an chin chhunte pawh a vawh em avangin a vui theilo a, la(cotton) tak ngialpawh a par theilo. Heng laia chengte chuan buhtun, busul, bal, kawlbahra, fangra leh vaimim te an ching a, hengte hi an chaw ber(main food) a ni. n Tunlai thleng hian, Kawlphai atanga an chawlut anih ngawt loh chuan buh(rice) an la ei meuh lo.

Hetiang hi an dinhmun leh awmdan anih avangin, kum tam deuh a liam hnu chuan Kawlphai atanga an ken silhfen leh thawmhnaw dangte chu a chhe zo a, han lei leh dawn mahse hmelmate an lo khat hmuk tawh a, tih rual niin a langlo a, hmun dang Silchar emaw Imphal emaw anla pawh pha bawk silo. Chuvangin, an culture a hnungtawlh a, an environment-in a zirloh em avangin, hruikhau-a siam, hmeichhia-in ‘Siapsuap’ an feng a, mipa-in ‘Hnawkhal’ an inbel ta niin a lang. Heng hi an zah thup nan an tihtheih leh neihtheih awm chhun ani mai thei. Dam khawchhuak chauh tur pawhin luleta an tan a tul ngei ang. Heng hun chhung Than tlang leh Run kam vela an chen lai hi kum 1250 - 1400 vel emaw, a aia reilo deuh ah dah ila, a sual lutuk awm love.

Hun a kal zel a,Than tlang leh Run kam chhuahsanin thlang lamah an tawlhthla zel a, Len tlang an thleng ta a. Len tlang leh Tiau inkar hi chu ram a parh tha in alo zaidam deuh a, leilung pawh a tha in ngawdur pui pui a tam a. A vawh lutuk loh avangin buh a chin theihin a vui thei a, la pawh a chin theihin a par thei ta bawk.

Tichuan, ziaktu hmasate sawi angin kawr dum, a lai rang rek ruk ‘Dawlrem kawr’ an nei a, ‘Tawlhloh puan’ te pawh an tah thiam ta a. Tawlhloh puan hi puanngo ah a senin an rawlh tial a, lal leh lal indo laia mi huaisen ten an sin theih chauh a ni. Puandum te, puanrin te, hmar-am bakah puan chi dangte pawh an nei mai thei. Chungte chu awmthei deuh ten an hman theih laiin, harsa zualte chuan hruikhau emaw, lachhum emawa siam ‘Siapsuap’ an la feng awm e. Hmar- Ei leh barah an hnianghnar ta deuh a, an ngelngheh deuh tak avangin sakhua pawh an ngaihsak thei ta a. Mahse sakhaw lama an hotu leh Puithiam, Kawlphai leh Run kama awm ve te an awm tawh loa,a biak dan leh thiam hla hria te an thi zo tawh a. Chuvangin, "Pi biakin lo chhang ang che, Pu biakin lo chhang ang che," tia bul an tan te hi a inhmeh hle mai. Len tlang leh Tiau lui inkara an khawsak hun hi kum 1400 - 1700 AD vel ni ngeiin a hriat. Than tlang leh Run kam vela khawsa, ‘Siapsuap’ leh ‘Hnawkhal’ inbel maimaiin, a hnu kum 50 emaw kum 100 lekah, Len tlang leh Tiau inkarah puantah an thiam a, themthiam tul tak puanthlan an tah thiam te, chung buatsaih nana tul hmui te, her-awt te an tuk thei a, ‘mechanism’ leh ‘technology’ sang tak neia an siam thiam te, thiamhnang chi hrang hrang an tah thei te hi chhan tha tak awm ngeiin a lang. Siapsuap leh Hnawkhal pipu ten an inbel hun, kum 1250 - 1400 AD vel ni awma rin hi a tlai lutuk hrim hrim a, South East Asia ram thekhatah chuan kum 2000 BC velah, Burma ah chuan kum 1000 BC velah hrui hih chawp an inbela sawi a ni a. Heng atanga kan chhutin pipu ten hruikhau ama zeh tel ‘Kawkpuizikzial’ phei hi chu thlan harsa tak hnahchawi 30 hman ngai a ni a, an kut themthiam zia leh an ngaihtuahna a san ve tawh zia hei hian a hril chiang hle. Tin, rawng chi hnih a dum leh a sen an nei tawh a, a dumna hi ‘ting’ a ni a, a senna erawh chu sentezel pil te, thingsaphu pil te leh saphit te a ni; a ngo(var) chu lapar rawng kha ani nghal. Tin, mipa ‘Hnawkhal’ inbel thin pawhin la hmanga tah ‘hren-pereng’ an kaih ve ta bawk awm e.

Hetianga puantah an thiam hi chuan, hmui te, her-awt te leh hmanraw hrang hrang an neiin, an siam thiam tihna ani nghal a. Thiamhnang chi hrang hrang an tah thiam a, a buatsaihna hmanraw chi dang dang an nei pawh hi an hniam tawh lemlo tih a hriat theih bawk. Tin, Len tlang leh Tiau inkara an chen lai hian, thawnthu te, hla te a chhuak a, chai te, chawngchen te, sa lu lam te, ral lu lam te, Chapchar kut te, Mim kut te, Pawl kut te pawh an hmang tawh a. Lal an nei tawh a, Tlangkhuaa an awmlai hi chuan an neinung ve hle tawh tih an hla atang hiana lang :

Tlangkhaw hrinin sum tin an khawl e,

Sum tin khawl tian dar a vuai ngei e.

Tlangkhuaah nghosai a kual an ti,

Luailungah kirin ka ring lo ve.

Ei leh barah an hnianghnar ta deuh a, an ngelngheh deuh tak avangin sakhua pawh an ngaihsak thei ta a. Mahse sakhaw lama an hotu leh Puithiam, Kawlphai leh Run kama awm ve te an awm tawh loa,a biak dan leh thiam hla hria te an thi zo tawh a. Chuvangin, “Pi biakin lo chhang ang che, Pu biakin lo chhang ang che,” tia bul an tan te hi a inhmeh hle mai. Len tlang leh Tiau lui inkara an khawsak hun hi kum 1400 - 1700 AD vel ni ngeiin a hriat.

Than tlang leh Run kam vela khawsa, ‘Siapsuap’ leh ‘Hnawkhal’ inbel maimaiin, a hnu kum 50 emaw kum 100 lekah, Len tlang leh Tiau inkarah puantah an thiam a, themthiam tul tak puanthlan an tah thiam te, chung buatsaih nana tul hmui te, her-awt te an tuk thei a, ‘mechanism’ leh ‘technology’ sang tak neia an siam thiam te, thiamhnang chi hrang hrang an tah thei te hi chhan tha tak awm ngeiin a lang.

Siapsuap leh Hnawkhal pipu ten an inbel hun, kum 1250 - 1400 AD vel ni awma rin hi a tlai lutuk hrim hrim a, South East Asia ram thekhatah chuan kum 2000 BC velah, Burma ah chuan kum 1000 BC velah hrui hih chawp an inbela sawi a ni a. Heng atanga kan chhutin pipu ten hruikhau hmanga serh an thup hun hi a tlai lutuk deuh atih theih a. Mahse, ziaktu hmasate hi mi zahawm tak tak, titi khawchang an dawn te a diklo a ziak chhawng mai mai rual an ni si lo. Chuvangin, a chhan tha tak a awm ngeiin a rinawm.

Pipute chu Kawlphaia an awm laiin an changkang thawkhat ngeia a rinawm thu kan sawi tawh a. Than tlang leh Run kam vela an awm laiin an culture a hnungtawlh nasa a a rinawm thu kan tarlang tawh bawk a. Len tlang leh Tiau inkar an thlen a, an environment- in a zir veleh puan an puah thiam a, hmui te, her-awt te an siam thiam a, thiamhnang chi hrang hrang an tah thiam bawk a. Heng thiam thil sang tak tak hi kum rei vak loa thiam mai theih leh hriat thut theih a ni lo. Hetianga Len tlang leh Tiau inkara an siam thiam mai hi thil mak tak a tling atih theih a. A chhan ni ngeia kan rin nghet tak chu, kan thlahtute China ram leh Tibet rama an awm laiin, a hma lama kan tarlan tawh ang khan tunlai thlenga China ram leh Thailand rama tlangmi ten an la chin zel ang hian an lo thiam tawh a. Thlang an rawn tlakpui zel a,Kawlphai-a an khawsak lai thlengin an la thiam zel a. An aia chak zawk leh tam zawk Shan hoin an nawr chhuah a, Than tlang leh Run kam vela an chen laiin, an environment- in a zir loh em vangin,  nasa  takin an culture a hnungtawlh a, a tlahniam dawrh a.  Mahse, Len tlang  leh Tiau inkar an thlen a, an environment- in a zir veleh an thluak leh rilrua awm, an inhlanchhawn zel chu alo nung a, an chhawmchhuak leh ta ni ngeiin kan ringnghet ta a ni. Tin, ‘Cheraw’ te pawh hi heng hunlai atang hian an lo kan tawh mai thei.

Chuvangin, Mizo Culture tobul leh intanna hi ‘Than tlang’ leh ‘Run kam’ mai ni loin, khi tah, China ram leh Tibet ram inrinaa an chen lai, kum zabi 4 na(AD) vel niin kan chhui lut a ni. Kan chhui dan hi Mizote hre chiangtu pahnihin an sawi dan hian a nemnghet viau nghe nghe. Thomas Herbert Lewin (Thangliana) chuan, "Tlangmi naran dang aiin an sang zawk," alo ti a. Mizoram Bawrhsap rei deuh tak lo ni tawh A.G. Mc Call-a pawhin, " Hetiang khawpa nun tha leh ropui hetiang hnam mawlin an rawn puchhuak thei hi, an hmanlai hun eng emaw lai khan hnam ropui China ang zingah an awm tawh a ni ang e," a ti bawk a. Kan zir chian dan nen a inzawm thain a inhmeh hlein a lang.

End Notes and References :

1. Rev. Liangkhaia :  Mizo Chanchin Bu 1, 1940, p. 24-25; V.L.Siama :  Mizo History,  1953, p. 10-11; Lalmama : Mizo Titi, 1972(chhut-9-  na), p. 1-2; Lalsuaka :  Mizo huntawng, 1982; p. 23-24; Remkunga :  Mizo pi pute , 1980, p. 13.

2. R.L.Thianga’n Ni 25 June, 2008-a a sawi.

3. B.S.Carey & H.N.Tuck :  The Chin Hills, 1976(Re-Print).

4. J.H.Lorrain :  Dictionary of Lushai Language, 1997(4th. Re-Print).

5. Ma Yin(Edited):  China’s Minority Nationalities, Beijing, 1989.

6. Prof. G.H.Luce: ‘Old Kyaukse and the coming of Burmans,’  Journal  of Burma Research Society,  XLII, June 1959.

7. DGE Hall:  A history of South-East Asia, 1964.

8. Edward Gaite :  A history of Assam,(2nd.Re-Print) p. 37, 70.

9. B.Lalthangliana :  History of Mizo in Burma, 1980.

10. B.Lalthangliana : India,Burma & Bangladesh-a Mizo Chanchin,2001.

11. Faur Servis(Jr.)& A. Walter :  The Origine of Oriental Civilization,

New York, 1959.

12. Prof. Dr. Than Tun :  New Finds in Burmese History, 1975.

13. Lt. Col. Thomas Lewin :  A fly on the Wheel, 1977(Re-Print).

14. Cited on ‘Zofaten kawng kan bo ve,’  Zikpuii Pa Hnuhma, 2000.

15. Hmingliani (Mrs. Thanhlira) : ‘Mizo hmeichhiate themthiamna lam,’ Thu leh Hla,  Fur Chhuak, 1965.

16. Boichhingpuii : ‘  Mizo hnam incheina,’ Seminar Paper, ni 5 June  2008-ah Archives Hall Aizawla a chhiar.


Thulakna: YMA Chanchinbu, February 2009

 

Comments

Date 30/08/2010
By Editor
Subject A Ziaktu

Bandwich a khaihlak a, kan edit thei tawh lo. He thu ziaktu hi B.Lalthangliana a ni e.

 

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